Ahead of October 13th 2016, the 27thInternational Day for Disaster Reduction, the office of China NationalCommission for Disaster Reduction issued “China's Actions for DisasterPrevention and Reduction during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period”(hereinafterreferred to as The Actions).The 12th Five-Year Plan Period has seen remarkableprogress in disaster prevention, reduction and relief. In the face of severeand complex disaster conditions, under the strong leadership and scientificdecision-making of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, localgovernments and departments have performed their own responsibilities andworked closely with each other. Therefore, remarkable progress has beenachieved in disaster prevention, reduction and relief. The Actions hascomprehensively summarized achievements and experiences of disaster prevention,reduction and relief during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period. The report alsoanalyzes outcomes in four areas, respectively the development of laws,regulations and institutionalization, capacity building, public participationand international cooperation of disaster prevention, reduction and relief.
The Actions points out that China is one ofthe countries most prone to natural disasters in the world. China’s naturaldisasters show the following characteristics: diverse types, wide scope ofdistribution, high frequency and huge losses. During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period,different natural disasters frequently hit China with wide scope of influence,showing distinctive regional features and severe influences of the monsoonclimate and causing huge losses caused by floods and earthquakes, etc. Anannual average of 310 million people were affected by disasters, with 1,500deaths or missing and over 9 million person-times of relocation caused peryear. Nearly 700,000 houses collapsed every year; more than 27 million hectaresof crops were affected; and direct economic loss surpassed 380 billion yuan.Compared with the annual average from 2001 to 2010, during the 12th Five-YearPlan Period, the number of people left dead or missing, the number of peoplerelocated due to disasters, collapsed houses, affected area of farmland and theproportion of direct economic loss in GDP decreased by 86.7%, 22.6%,75.6%,38.8% and 13.2% respectively.
The Actions points out that during the 12thFive-Year Plan Period, China has enhanced the development of laws, regulations,policies and mechanisms to improve the legal system for disaster management.The institutionalization of disaster prevention, reduction and relief mechanismis set as a key priority for public safety system development to make the work morelaw-oriented and regulated. In this way, a disaster management system has beenformed with the centralized leadership of the Party Central Committee and theState Council, the distribution of functions for different departments, tieredmanagement of disasters, major management responsibilities belonging tolocalities and wide public participation. We have improved the mechanism for disasterprevention, reduction and relief. Progress has been made in monitoring andwarning, information management, emergency response and coordination, fund guarantee,the reserve of emergency materials as well as recovery and reconstruction. Onthe whole, our works on disaster prevention, reduction and relief becomeincreasingly scientific and standardized. “Having laws to follow” and “managingby law” have been generally achieved.
The Actions points out that during the 12thFive-Year Plan Period, China has endeavored to improve capacity building innatural disaster engineering preparedness, monitoring and warning, scientificsupport, disaster prevention and reduction team building and comprehensivedisaster prevention and reduction at community level. China has increasedinvestment in key engineering facilities of disaster prevention and reductionagainst floods and droughts, earthquakes, strong wind, tide storms, desertificationand ecological deterioration, which has improved the engineering disasterresilience capacity. In the field of monitoring and warning, we furtherenhanced the three-dimensional monitoring system for natural disasters,promoted different warning, forecast and information release mechanisms ofnatural disasters. China has increased monitor sites and optimized themonitoring distribution so that to enhance our capacity. In the capacitybuilding of scientific support, great importance is attached to the role ofscience and technology in disaster prevention and reduction. We have set upscientific research platforms to promote the researches on disasters and theoutcomes transferring and the application of the research results with the aimto continually improve scientific support in disaster prevention and reduction.In cultivating disaster management team-building, education of disasterprevention and reduction personnel are incorporated into the national talentdevelopment program so that to ensure the supply of talents. In improvingdisaster prevention and reduction capability in communities, by integratingwith the building of new rural areas, post disaster reconstruction and povertyreduction work, we have strengthened the regional disaster prevention and reductioncapacity. Urban and rural communities have seen gradual improvement in disasterprevention and reduction capacity.
The Actions points out that China hasattached great importance to and supported the public participation in disasterprevention, reduction and response. We promoted and improved the insurancesystem for disasters. We carried out publication activities of disasterprevention and reduction. More people will participate in deeper and largerextent of disaster reduction and prevention work. Public involvement indisaster relief work has been incorporated into a government standardmanagement system. Governments at every level have guided and led the socialparticipation in disaster relief work. A coordination service platform forpublic participation in disaster relief has been set up. Regulations fordonations to disasters, the management of volunteer services have beenimproved. The central government finance has continuously increased statefinancial subsidies for agriculture insurance; support the development ofagriculture insurance; implemented rural disaster housing insurance. In thisway, insurance system for disasters have been set up and improved. Market hasplayed a more and more significant role in transferring and sharing disasterrisks and expanding sources of disaster relief funds.
The Actions points out that during the12thFive-Year Plan Period, China has actively taken part in the internationalcooperation in disaster risk reduction under the framework of the UnitedNations. The practical and fruitful regional cooperation has been promoted andwe carried out humanitarian relief positively. We have wider cooperation withrelevant international organizations, institutions, government of countries andregional governments. The cooperation mechanism has improved continuously.Cooperation fields become more practical. China has showed a good internationalimage and status.
Attachment: China’s Actions for Disaster Reduction during the Period of the 12th Five-Year Plan (Full text)